What are the effects of cracking joints?

What is this cracking?

While many refer to it as cracking your joints, this is more formally known as crepitus. A cracking or popping that occurs with movement in a joint due to the presence of air in joint tissues.

What makes a joint?

Joints are made up of many different components, but at the most basic, a joint is the mobile area between two adjacent bones. Joints consist of the following:

  • Tendons: joining the muscles to bones to provide strength, stability, and support precise motions while supporting a load
  • Synovial fluid: bathes the space and tissues to reduce friction and lubricate the joints. This area can become inflamed or swollen depending on how many pro-inflammatory agents build up in the space.
  • Articular cartilage: a smooth, frictionless tissue covering the ends of the adjacent bones to allow them to glide past one another seamlessly.
  • Bursa: these small sacs are filled with fluid and provide a cushion between tendons, muscles, and the bones
  • Muscles: these provide the motions of flexion and extension, but may be involved in a wider range depending on which joint is being discussed.

What are the symptoms?

Depending on the causes, the symptoms could be associated with swelling around the joints.

What are the causes?

More often than not, crepitus is generally considered to be harmless. However, there are times when it could be signaling a more severe condition.

  • Arthritis. Conditions such as osteoarthritis cause the joint spaces to degenerate. This includes the cartilage which reduces the ability of the adjacent bones to glide past one another, creating friction, inflammation, and pain.
  • Patellofemoral pain syndrome. This condition is characterized by pain around the knee cap (patella), and is commonly referred to as Runner’s Knee as it represents over 16.5% of all running-related injuries. One study from 2018 demonstrated that women experiencing crepitus in the knees are four times more likely to experience patellofemoral pain syndrome.
  • Trapped air. More often than not, the popping sound in joints is simply due to the rapid motion collapsing air bubbles that have accumulated in the joint space.
  • Ligament/meniscus/tendon tear. It’s possible to have experienced a tear in the tissues around a joint, and as they pass over bony joint structures, they can create sounds such as cracking or popping.

With all of these potential reasons, it’s important to investigate the sound to rule out any conditions that require more aggressive intervention by your primary care provider.

Could it be harmful if I’ve got cracking all the time (i.e. cracking fingers)?

This is a myth that has been busted. Via x-rays, researchers demonstrated that there is no connection between cracking your knuckles and the gradual degeneration of the joint space. Good news for the children who were chided by loving family members for fear of damaging their fingers over time and ending up with arthritis.

What exercises should I use to prevent cracking?

It’s important to focus on increasing the strength of your hip abductors and external rotators which prevent the knee from shifting towards the midline of the body while running and reduce crepitus. Muscles responsible for abduction of the hip include the tensor fasciae latae, the gluteus medius and minimus.

Muscles responsible for external rotation include the gluteus family (maximus, medius, and minimus), the gemellus superior/inferior, the quadratus femoris, and the obturator externus and internus.

These muscles can be strengthened by exercises such as side-lying leg lift, clamshell, fire-hydrants, prone extensions, and raised knee walking amongst others.

If there is pain associated with the sound, how can I manage it?

Devil’s Claw: Harpagophytum procumbens, otherwise known as Devil’s Claw, is a plant species native to south Africa. The harpagosides, the active constituent of the plant acts as an anti-inflammatory and can be taken internally. Products such as Joint Pain Relief tablets can provide this benefit, but the European Medicines Agency notes that it could take 2-3 months to notice significant benefits as the harpagosides accumulate in the tissues of the body with patients noticing decreased pain and increased joint mobility.

As you began to build muscle and add load to the bones, you may notice a decrease in the joint pain and could potentially reduce the dose of harpagosides. It’s important to work alongside your primary care provider to minimize your risk of injury.

Turmeric: The active compound of turmeric is known as curcumin and makes up a large portion of the anti-inflammatory benefits of turmeric. These curcuminoids act on a pro-inflammatory signal known as NF- κB and reduce inflammation. Researchers saw a reduction in pain as indicated by a visual analogue scale, a decreased WOMAC score, and a reduced need for painkillers. Another interesting trial in 2019 demonstrated that curcumin was as effective as diclofenac for controlling pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis, a common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs) which is slightly superior to other NSAIDs. While turmeric can easily be added to one’s diet, you may not achieve the levels shown to be effective in the research. It’s worth discussing which product may be best for you.

References:
https://bmjopensem.bmj.com/content/2/1/e000086
https://www.ema.europa.eu/documents/herbal-report/final-assessment-report-harpagophytum-procumbens-dc/harpagophytum-zeyheri-decne-radix_en.pdf
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-22664-4.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1129752/pdf/westjmed00297-0049.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5003001/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5664031/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29890402
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30975196

Is there a link with sleeping position and your joint pain?

What is the connection between sleep and pain?

To consider the connection, it’s important to understand that complaints around sleep, by some estimates, are present in upwards of 88% of chronic pain conditions. On the opposite end of the spectrum, approximately 50% of those afflicted by insomnia report chronic pain.

Studies on the impacts of sleep deprivation have demonstrated that participants tend to develop hyperalgesia, a hypersensitivity to pain stimuli in a dose-response relationship. As the sleep deprivation progresses over many nights, the sensitivity increases. In the more specific case of conditions characterized by joint pain, those diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis feeling a greater amount of pain following a partial sleep deprivation, not to mention the impacts it had on their fatigue levels and experience of depression.

Unfortunately, the exact mechanism for why this occurs is unclear, but researchers have a few ideas including changes in the signaling of neurotransmitters such as dopamine or opioid peptides. Another thought is the impact that sleep deprivation has on our mood and the effect that this would have on sensitizing the sleepy individual to stimuli such as joint pain.

What is the healthiest way to sleep?

It’s a difficult question since there is no right answer. We all have our preferences for everything from the firmness of the bed to the pillow, to whether the window is opened or closed, and the eternal conflict about why a bed needs 10 or more decorative pillows. However, there are sleeping conditions that encourage a restful and rejuvenating snooze:

  • Temperature. The optimal temperature for sleeping is anywhere from 19 – 21°C. At this temperature, our bodies create a buffer zone or microclimate of heat that surrounds the body. Research has shown that anything outside of the buffer range (31 – 35°C) can have a negative impact on the rejuvenating properties of sleep.
  • Lights. Turn them off as we need the contrast between light and dark to appropriately regulate the circadian rhythms of sleep. An animal study was conducted where mice were exposed to light around the clock, and they demonstrated higher levels of depression than those with a normalized dark-light cycle. Exposure to artificial lights at night has been linked with higher risk of anything from behavioural and psychiatric disorders to breast cancer.
  • Air circulation. When bedroom windows are kept shut, especially true in crisp Canadian winters, and the bedroom door is closed, levels of CO2 can swiftly rise and exceed 2500 parts per million (PPM). This reduced the quality of sleep and had impacts into the next day including feeling more uptight, tired, and sleepy. Ventilating the room improved these measures, overall quality of sleep, and even performance on a logic test.

Which position should I avoid, especially if I suffer from neck and/or back pain?

Sleeping on your front is the pinnacle of poor position. Unless you want to attempt breathing through a pillow, it forces your head and neck sideways. This extended rotation of the cervical spine can gradually contribute to misalignment as it flattens the natural curvature of the spine. Even lying on the back with a hand on the forehead recruits the scalene muscles and upper trapezius muscles and is associated with neck pain.

However, if you find that this is the only position that doesn’t contribute to the pain, then consider placing a small pillow underneath the hips to elevate them off of the bed in order to align the spine.

How should we sleep with back and neck pain?

With neck and back pain, the goal is to align the spine and recruit the fewest muscles over the course of the night, leaving them relaxed and allowing you to wake up relatively pain-free. Sleeping on the side with a small pillow between the legs, or on the back with a pillow under the arch of the knees will help keep the spine aligned.

What are some ways to reduce the pain?

  • Arnica montana is an herbal consideration as studies have demonstrated its topical anti-inflammatory properties. Research notes its ability to reduce the intensity of pain and improve function in those with osteoarthritis of the hands as well as an Ibuprofen Gel 5% (Optifen). Lab studies note this is due to the ability of the plant to reduce pro-inflammatory agents such as NF-ĸB via sesquiterpene lactones contained in the plant.
  • It is worth your time to consider the use of acupuncture as a meta-analysis published in the Journal of the American Medical Association concluded that acupuncture has a modest, but effective ability to reduce chronic pain. Another systematic review demonstrated how acupuncture could treat insomnia, and helped augment the impacts of herbs traditionally used for sleep.
  • A final consideration may be meditative movements to improve sleep quality. This includes yoga, tai chi, and qi gong which improved participant scores on a widely used measure known as the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) when they engaged in the movements for four weeks to six months. They notice improvements in their sleep quality, how quickly they fell asleep and how long they stayed asleep. Many of these meditative practices also have benefits in reducing the sensation or experience of pain, allowing you to sleep without the distraction.

References:
https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/herbal-report/draft-assessment-report-arnica-montana-l-flos_en.pdf
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/1357513
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3156618/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4046588/#R103
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5468189/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5299389/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6491889/
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15033151
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17326547
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22467992
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26452168
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26802824
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07420528.2018.1527773